SOCI 132 De Anza College Sociology Gender Pay Gap Memo Discussion

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Discussion B

Write a 500-600 word memo 

Draw on Week 1 and 2 lectures and these readings:  Bleiweis; Wade & Ferree Ch. 12 Work; and pp. 8-13 (snapshots) in the Blair-Loy, Cech and Pecenco (2013) Report; Connell & Messerschmidt (selected pages in syl.); and Schippers (selected pages in syl.). 

Answer each part of the prompt.

  1. Discuss the gender pay gap.  Drawing closely on readings and lectures explain: (a) how large the gender pay is among full-time workers; (b) what the single largest cause of the gender gap; (c) what is another important cause.
  2. Drawing on Connell & Messerschmidt, define hegemonic masculinity.
  3. Now, thinking broadly about all these readings, discuss how the gender pay gap helps reinforce hegemonic masculinity.
  4. Peer 1 :Yinchuan WangYesterdayJul 6 at 11:13pmManage Discussion EntryWith the progress of society, some laws to promote the gender pay gap have been improved, and the education level of women has also been continuously improved. Even in some professional fields, the number of women obtaining higher education has exceeded that of men. But it is undeniable that there is still a big gap between male and female salaries. This kind of pay gap caused by gender differences is common in most industries of society. “Women who work full time earn $0.82 for every dollar earned by comparable men. For the typical women working fifty weeks a year, that means earning $ 8550 less each year”(Wade and Ferree 2015). The main cause of the gender pay gap is occupational segregation, which creates a differentiated workforce and devalues women’s careers. The stereotype of male-dominated jobs is that they are physically strong, have a quick mind and have mastered at least one professional skill, while the stereotype of female-dominated jobs is that they can do their jobs without professional skills. This view devalues women’s Occupational Values and professional skills and prevents them from earning the same salaries as men. “Among the lowest-paid occupations, more than two-thirds (13 out of 18) are dominated by women, while the rest are dominated by men”(Wade and Ferree 2015). Discrimination against women and mothers is also an important cause of the gender wage gap. In the same profession, women’s salary level is also lower than that of men on the whole. “Although women account for the majority of pediatricians, their income level is only 66% of that of male pediatricians. In majors with higher income, the income of female gastroenterologists is 79% of that of male colleagues”(Blair-Loy, Cech and Pecenco 2013). Discrimination against women’s occupations is often divided into benevolent and hostile, both of which hinder the development of women’s occupations. Some managers believe that women’s psychological endurance is not as good as men’s, so they are unwilling to criticize female employees or point out their mistakes. This kind of thinking can put female employees in a state of stagnation in their careers, while male employees are often more likely to succeed in their work after being criticized and guided. The malicious discrimination faced by women in their careers is often harassment and violence, which will make women always in a tense state at work and lose their due enthusiasm for work. Mothers are more vulnerable to discrimination in the workplace because they spend a lot of time on family matters and child care. When competing for high-paying jobs, they are often rejected due to their lack of work experience and their inability to devote themselves to the job. However, married men are more likely to have a high-paying career because married men are often seen as more responsible.Hegemonic masculinity is understood as a pattern of practice, that is, something repeated over time. It legitimized the dominance of men in society and the subordination of women and marginalized men and allowed men to continue to dominate women. Hegemonic masculinity is seen as the most respected way of being a person in society. Hegemonic masculinity is not considered normal but is indeed normative and only a few people will implement it. The hegemonic temperament does not mean that violence is more reflected in the use of culture and institutions to gain advantages.Hegemonic masculinity is often reinforced by creating distance and subordination in women and marginalized men. Hegemonic masculinity also changes over time and place. People who are better suited to hegemonic masculinity in terms of compensation tend to be men with sufficient financial power. There is an unequal gender pay gap, with women generally being paid less than men, even when men and women are in the same occupations and the pay gap has not changed much. The gender wage gap gradually widens the economic level between men and women, thereby consolidating the dominance of men and the subordination of women. It also further enhances the masculinity of hegemony. [564]
  5. Peer 2:Brandon MarianoYesterdayJul 6 at 10:51pmManage Discussion EntryThe gender pay gap shows the median income gap between men and women with increases within recent years such 2018 that displayed a rate of .82 according to Bleiweis compared to a rate of .77 when observed by Hegewisch and Williams in 2010. When observing Bleiweis’s analysis, the gender wage even mitigates the earnings of certain groups of women. While some have earned more than others, a report from the American progress focusing  on 2018 median incomes for full time working women found that women of color (in specific Black women, Hispanic and Latina women, and indigenous women) earned significantly less than White and Asian women. White women were found to be making approximately 79 cents on the dollar and Asian women making 90 cents on the dollar but still find themselves short in comparison to white men that do earn that full dollar amount. According to the American Progress report, Hispanic or Latino women were discovered to be making approximately 54 cents on the dollar, making them the lost earning women on the median income bracket when compared amongst other full time working women. Indigenous women were the second lowest earners on the chart with them earning 57cents on the dollar and the third lowest was Black women earning 62 cents on the dollar.These explanations for the gender pay gap is explained by two methods which are the supply side and the demand-side. The supply side helps explain what workers are bringing to the work environment and demand-side helps determine what exactly employers want from their workers. The supply side comes with various explanations on why this occurs. First it starts with the socialization of children to influence them to pick gender normative interests i.e. boys wanting to be military or firefighters for example. Then there is the human capital explanation. In terms of hours worked, technically men do work more hours than women because they have a higher probability to achieve work advanced but due to the fact that women have more housework and responsibilities, women put in more effort in the hours that they put in. Even in terms of education, women are most likely to obtain college degrees and earn nearly half of law and medical degrees. But men are found to have more work experience but as time goes by that gap is closing. According to Wade and Ferree, a study revealed what they considered as selective exiting. Where 61% of women were more likely to have negative experiences in male dominated fields and were essentially forced out within a ten year timeline.This all displays Connell and Messerschmidt’s concept of hegemonic masculinity which is defined by a pattern of practices to ensure men dominated women to carry on in the social hierarchy that is culturally established rather than being forced upon by violence. A simple example of this put in play on a societal level is creating a pattern of normalcy for role models to cater to boys and men such as professional athletes, hyper masculine actors, or venture capitalists. Culturally creating a pattern of men having the upper hand on physical prowess and showing men having more rationality in comparison to women creates a whole society that favors men to do the highest paying work regardless if it is equal or not. The implementation through culture of men being the most capable has major repercussions on the society at large.   

SOCI 132 De Anza College Sociology Gender Pay Gap Memo Discussion

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